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PRO-MASS 1 ® (Sample Size) [click to enlarge]

MSRP: $29.99
Internet Direct: $24.99


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(Sample size) Great new taste! Pharmacist Formulated Weight Gain, Packed with Protein, Carbohydrates, Vitamins, and Minerals & More!

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Pharmacist References:

Beta-Carotene References:
1. Shekelle RB, Lepper M, Liu S, et al. Dietary vitamin A and risk of cancer in the Western Electric Study. Lancet 1981;ii:1185-90.
2. Hennekens CH, Burning JE, Manson JE, et al. Lack of effect of long-term supplementation with beta carotene on the incidence of malignant neoplasms and cardiovascular disease. N Engl J Med 1996;334:11145-49.
3. Albanes D, Heinone OP, Taylor PR, et al. Alpha-tocopherol and beta-carotene supplements and lung cancer incidence in the Alpha-Tocopherol, Beta-Carotene Cancer Prevention Study: effects of base-line characteristics and study compliance. Natl Cancer Inst 1996;88:1560-70.
4. Omenn GS, Goodman GE, Thornquist MD, et al. Effects of a combination of bet carotene and vitamin A on lung cancer and cardiovascular disease. N Engl J Med 1996;334:1150-55.
5. Wang, X-D, Liu C, Bronson RT, et al. Retinoid signaling and activator protein-1 expression in ferrets given B-caroltene supplements and exposed to tobacco smoke. Natl Cancer Inst 1999;91:60-6.
6. You C-S, Parker RS, Goodman KJ, et al. Evidence of cis-trans isomerization of 9-cis-beta-carotene during absorption in humans. Am J Clin Nutr 1996;64:177-83.
7. Tami H, Morinobu T, Murata T, et al. 9-cis beta-carotene in human plasma and blood cells after ingestion of beta-carotene. Lipids 1995;30:493-98.
8. Ben-Amotz A, Levy Y. Bioavailabiltiy of a natural isomer mixture compared with synthetic all-trans beta-carotene in human serum. Am J Clin Nutr 1996;63:729-34.
9. Bitterman N, Melamed Y, Ben-Amotz A. Beta-carotene and CNS oxygen toxicit in rats. J Appl Physiol 1994;76:1073-76.
10. Ben-Amotz A, Levy Y. Bioavailability of a natural isomer mixture compared with synthetic all-trans beta-carotene in human serum. Am J Clin Nutr 1996;63:729-34.
11. Yeum K-J, Azhu S, Xiao S, et al. Beta-carotene intervention trial in premalignagastric lesions. J Am Coll Nutr 1995;14:536 [abstr#48].
12. Xu MJ, Plezia PM, Alberts DS, et al. Reduction in plasma or skin alpha-tocpherol concentration with long-term oral adminstration of beta-caroten in humans and mice. J Natl Cancer Inst 1992;84:1559-65.

Vitamin D References:
1. Hayes CE, Cantorna MT, Deiuca HF. Vitamin D and multiple sclerosis. Proc Soc Exper Biol Med 1997;216:21-27.
2. Labriji-Mestaghanmi H, Billaudel B, Garnier PE, Sutter BCJ. Vitamin D and pancreatic islet function 2. Time course for changes in insulin secretion and content during vitamin deprivation and repletion. Endocrine Invest 1988;11:577-87.
3. time course for changes in insulin seretion and content during vitamin deprivation and repletion Endocrine invest 1988,11.577-87.
4. Boucher BJ. Indequate vitamin D status: does it contribute to the disorders comprising syndrom 'X'? Br J Nutr 1998;79:315-27.
5. Chapuy M-C, Preziosi P, Maamer M, et al. Prevalence of vitamin D insufficency in an adult normal population. Osteoporosis Int 1997;7:439-43.
6. Thomas MK, Lloyd-Jones DM, Thadhani RI, et al. Hypovitaminosis D in medical inpatients. N Engl Meg 1998;338:777-83.
7. Dawson-Hughes B, Harris SS, Krall EA, et al. Rates of bone loss in postmenopausal women randomly assigned to one of twn dosages of vitmain D. Am J Clin Epidemio 1997,50:967-73.
8. Lind L, Sakrfors F, Rerglund L, et al. Serum calcium: A new independent prospective risk factor formula of myocardial infarction in middle-aged men followed for 18 years. J Clin Epidemio 1997,50:967-73.
9. Heikkinen A0M, Tuppurainen MT, Komulainen M, et al. Long-term vitamin D3 supplementation may have adverse effects on serum lipids during postmenopausal hormone replacement therapy. Eur J Endocrinol 1997;137:495-502.
10. Scragg R, Khaw K-T, Murphy S. Effect of winter oral vitamin D3 supplementation on cardiovascular risk factors in elderly adults. Eur J Clin Nutr 1995;49:640-46.

Vitamin C References:
1. Balz F. Antioxiant vitamins and heart disease. Presented at the 60th Annual Biology Colloquium, Oregon State University, Corvallis, Oregon, February 25, 1999.
2. Hemilä H. Does vitamin C alleviate the symptoms of the common cold? A review of current evidence Scand J Infect Dis
3. Taddei S, Virdis A, Ghaidoni L, et al. Vitamin C improves endotheoium-dependent vasodilation by restoring nitric oxide activity in essential hypertension. Circulation 1998;97:2222-29
4. Chambers JC, McGregor A, Jean-Marie J, et al. Demonstration of rapid onset vascular endothelial dysfunction after hyperhomocysteinemia. An effect reversible with vitamin C therapy. Circulation 1999;99:1156-60.
5. Taylor A. Cataract: relationship between nutrition and sxidation. J Am Coll Nutr 1993;12:138-46 [review].
6. Taylor A, Jacques PF, Nadler D, et al. Relationship in humans between ascorbic acid consumption and levels of total and reduced ascorbic acid in lens, aqueous humor, and plasma. Curr Eye Res 1991;10:751-59.
7. Jacques PF, Chylack LT Jr. Epidemiologic evidence of a role for the antioxidant vitamins and carotenoids in cataract prevention. Am J Clin Nutr 1991;53:352S-55S
8. Jacques PF, Chylack LT, McGandy RB, Hartz SC. Antioxidant status in persons with and without senile cataract. Arch Ophthalmol 1988;106:337-40.
9. Robertson JM, Donner AP, Trevithick JR. vitamin E intake and risk of cataracts in humans Ann Nrl Acad Sci 1989;570:372-82.
10. Seddon JM, Christen WG, Manson JE, et al. The use of vitamin supplements and the risk of cataract among US male physicians. Am J Public Health 1994;84:788-792.
11. Vincent TE, mendiratta S, may JM. Inhibition of aldose reductase in human erythrocytes by vitamin C. diabetes Res Clin Pract1 999;43:1-8.
12. Simon JA. Ascorbic acid and cholesterol gallstones. Med Hypotheses 1993;40:81-84.
13. Levine M, Conry-Cantilena C, Wang Y, et al. Vitamin C pharmacokinetics in healthy volunteers evidence for a recommended dietary allowance. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 1996;93:3704-709
14. Sandstead HH. Copper bioavailability and requirements. Am J clin Nutr 1982;35:809-14 [review].
15. Finley EB, Cerklewski FL. Influence of ascorbic acid supplementation on copper status in yound adult men. Am J Clin Nutr 1983;37:553-56.
16. Piesse JW. Nutritional factors in calcium containing kidney stones wiht particular emphasis on vitamin C. Int Clin Nutr Rev 1985;5(3):110-129 [review]
17. Ringsdorf WM, Cheraskin WM. Medical complications from ascorbic acid: review and interpretation (part one). J Holistic Med 1984;6(1):49-63.
18. Hoffer A. Ascorbic acid and kidney stones. Can Med Assoc J 1985;32:320 [letter]
19. Wandzilak TR, D'Andre SD, Davis PA, Williams HE. Effect of high dose vitamin C on urinary oxal levels. J Urol 1994;151:834-37.
20. Levine M. Vitamin C and optimal health. Presented at the February 25, 1999 60th Annual Biology Colloquium, Oregon State University, Corvallis, Oregon.
21. Levine M, Conry-Cantilena C, wang Y, et al. Vitamin C pharmacokinetics in healthy volunteers:evidnece for a recommended dietary allowance. proc Natl Acad Sci USA 1996;93:3704-709.
22. Auer BL, Auer D, Rodgers AL. Relative hyperoxaluria, crystalluria and haematuria after megadose ingestion of vitamin C. Eur J Clin Invest 1998;28:695-700.

Vitamin E References:
1. Rimm EB, Stampfer MJ, Asherio A, et al. Vitamin E consumption and the risk of coronary heart disease in men. N Engl J Med 1993;328:1450-56.
2. Stampfer MJ, Hennekens CH, Manson JE, et al. Vitamin E consumption and the risk of coronary heart disease in women. N Engl J Med 1993;328:1444-49.
3. Stephens NG, Parsons A, Schofield PM, et al. Randomised controlled trial of vitamin E in patients with coronary disease: Combridge Heart Antioxidant Study (CHAOS). Lancet 1996;347:781-86.
4. Christen S, Woodall AA, Shigenaga MK, Southwell-Keely, Duncan MW, Ames BN. Gamma-tocopherol traps mutagenic electrophiles such as NO+and complements alpha-tocopherol: physiological implications. Proc Natl Acad Sci 1997;94:3217-22.
5. Rimm E. Micronutrients, Coronary Heart disease and cancer: Shoud we all be on supplements? Presented at the 60th Annual Biology Colloquium, Oregon State University, February 25, 1999.

Vitamin B1 References:
1. Cheraskin E, Ringsdorf WM, Medford FH, Hicks BS. The "ideal" daily vitamin B1 intake Oral Med 1978;33:77-79.

Vitamin B2 References:
1. Bhat Nutritional status of thiamine, riboflavin and pyridoxine in catarct patients. Nutr Rep Inter 1987;36:685-92.

Vitamin B6 References:
1. Keniston RC, Nathan PA, Leklem JE, Lockwood Rs. Vitamin B6, vitamin C, and carpal tunnel syndrome. J Occup Environ Med 1997;39:949-59.
2. Franzblau A, Rock CL, Werner RA, et al. The relationship of vitamin B6 status to median nerve function and carpal tunnel syndrome among active industrial workers. J Occup Environ Med 1996;38:485-91.
3. Smith GP, Rudge PJ, Peters TJ. Biochemical studies of pyridoxal and pyridoxal phosphate status and therapeutic trial of pyridoxine in patients with carpal tunnel syndrome. Ann Neurol 1984;15:104-107.
4. Gaby AR. Literature review & commentary. Townsend Letter for Doctors June 1990;338-39.
5. Parry G, Bredesen DE. Sensory neuropath with low-dose pyridoxine. Neurology 1985;35:1466-68.
6. Schaumburg H, Kaplan J, Windebank A, et al. Sensory neuropathy from pyridoxine abuse. N England Med 1983;309(8):445-48.

Vitamin B12 References:
1. Ellis FR, Nasser S. A pilot study of vitamin B12 in the treatment of tiredness. Br J Nutr 1973;30:277-83.
2. Lapp CW, Cheney PR. The rationale for using high-dose cobalamin )vitamin B12). CFIDS Chronic Physicians' Forum, 1993;Fall:19-20.
3. Rana S, D'Amico F, Merenstein JH. Relationship of vitamin B12 deficiency with incontinence in old people. J Am Geriatr Soc 1998;46:931 [letter].
4. Houston DK, Johnson MA, Nozza RJ, et al. Age-related hearing loss, vitamin B12, and folate in elderly women. Am J Clin Nutr 1999;69:564-71.
5. Goldberg TH. Oral vitamin B12 supplementation for elderly patients with B12 deficiency. J Am Geri Soc 1995;43:SA73 [abstr#P258].
6. Lederle FA. Oral cobalamin for pernicious anemia-medicine's best kept secret? JAMA 1993;264:94-95 [commentary].
7. Kondo H. Haematological effects of oral cobalamin preparations on patients with megaloblasic anemia. Acta Haematol 1998;99:200-205.
8. Waif SO, Jansen CJ., Crabtree RE, et al. Oral vitamin B12 without intrinsic factor in the treatment pernicous anemia. Ann Intern Med 1963;58:810-17.
9. Crosby WH. Oral cyanocobalamin without intrinsic factor for pernicious anemia. Arch Intern Med 1980;140:1582.
10. Kaufman W. The use of vitamin therapy to reverse certain concomitants of aging. J Am Geriatr S 1955;3:927-36.
11. Lindenbaum J, Rosenberg IH, Wilson PWF, et al. Prevalence of cobalamin deficiency in the Framingham elderly population. Am J Clin Nutr 1994;60:2-11.
12. verhaeverbeke I, mets T, Mulkens K, vandewoulde M. Normalization of low vitamin B12 serum levels in older people by oral treatment. J Am Geriatr Soc 1997;45:124-25 [letter].

Pantothenic Acid References:
1. Fidanza A. Therapeutic action of pantothenic acid. Int J Vit Nutr Res 1983;suppl 24-53-67 [review].

Folic Acid References:
1.Daly LE, Kirke PN, Molloy A, et al. Folate levels and neural tube defects. JAMA 1995;274:1698-17.
2. Shaw GM, O'Malley CD, Wasserman CR, et al. Maternal periconceptional use of multivitamins and reduced risk for conotruncal heart defects and limb deciciencies among offspring. Am J Med Gentetics 1995;59:536-45.
3. Tolarova M. Periconceptional supplementation with vitamins and folic acid to prevent recurrence of cleft lip. Lancet 1982;ii:217 [letter].
4. Shaw GM, Lammer EF, Wasserman CR, et al. Risks of orofacial clefts in children born to women using multivitamins containing folic acid periconceptionally. Lancet 14995;345:393-96.
5. Hayes C, Werler MM, Willett WC, Mitchell AA. Case-control study of periconceptional folic acid supplementation and oral clefts. Am J Epidemiol 1996;143:1229-34.
6. Russel RM. A minimum of 13,500 deaths annually from coronary artery disease could be prevented by increasing folate intake to reduce homocysteine levels. JAMA 1996;274:1828-29.
7. Houston DK, Johnson MA, Nozza RJ, et al. Age-related hearing loss, vitamin B-12, and folate in elderly women. Am J Clin Nutr 1999;69:564-71.
8. Butterworth CE Jr, Tamua T. Folic acid safety and toxicity: a brief review. Am J Clin Nutr 1989;50:353-58.
9. Wald NJ, Bower C. Folic acid, pernicious anaemia, and prevention of neural tube defects. Lancet 1994;343:307.
10. Russell RM, Golner BB, Krasinski SD, et al. Effect of antacid and H2 receptor antagonists on the intestinal absorption of folic acid. J Lab Clin Med 1988;112:458-63.
11. Russell RM, Dutta SK, Oaks EV, et al. Impariment of folic acid absorption by oral pancreatic extracts. Dig Dis Sci 1980;25:369-73.

Biotin References:
1. Said HM, Redha R, Nylander W. Biotin transport in the human intestine: Inhibition by anticonvulsar drugs. Am J Clin Nutr 1989;49:127-31.
2. Zempleni J, Mock DM. Biotin biochemistry and human requirements. J Nutr Biochem 1999;10:128-38 [review].
3. Coggeshall JC et al. Biotin status and plasma glucose in diabetics. Ann NY Acad Sci 1985;447:38
4. Koutsikos D. Agroyannis B, Tzanatos-Exarchou H, Biotin for diabetic peripheral neuropathy. Bio Pharmachother 1990;44:511-14.
5. Hochman LG, Scher RK, Meyerson MS. Brittle nails. Responses to daily biotin supplementation. Curtis 1993;51(4):303-5.
6. Gomer E. The Essential Guide to Vitamins and Mineral New York Harger, 1995;70-72.

Paba References:
1. Wiesel LL et al. The synergistic action of para-aminobenzoic acid and cortisone in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis. Am J Med Sci 1951;222:243-48.
2. Sieve BF. The clinical effects of a new B-complex factor, para-aminobenzioc acid, on pigmentation and fertility. South Med Surg 1942 -March_;104:135-39.
3. Zarafonetis CJD. The treatment of scleroderma: results of potassium para-aminobenzoate therapy 104 cases. In Mills LC, Moyer JH (eds). Inflamation and Diseases of Connective Tissue, W.B. Saunders Co., 1961, 688-96.

4. Zarafonetis CJD et al. Restrospective studies in scleroderma: effect of potassium para-aminobenzoa on survival. J Clin Epidemiol 1988;41:193-205.
5. Zarafonetis CJ, Dabich L, Devol EB, et al. Retrospective studies in scleroderma: pulmonary finding and effect of potassium p-aminobenzoate on vital capacity. Respiration 1989;56:22-33.
6. Clegg DO, Reading JC, Mayes MD, et al. Caparison of aminobenzoate potassium and placebo the treatment of scleroderma. J Rheumatol 1994;21:105-10.
7. Grace WJ et al. Therapy of scleroderma and dermatomyositis. NY State J Med 1963;63:140-44.
8. Zarafonetis CJD, et al. Treatment of pemphigus with potassium para-aminobenzoate. Am J Med S 1956;231:30-50.
9. Sieve BF. Further investigations in the treatment of vitlligo. Virginia Med Monthly 1945 (January):6-17.
10. Hughes CG. Oral PABA and vitiligo. J Am Acad Dermatol 1983;9:770 [letter].
11. Gaby AR. The story of PABA. Nutr Healing 1997;March:3-4, 11 [review].
12. Zarafonetis CJD. Darkening of gray hair during para-amino-benzoic acid therapy. J Invest Derma 1950;15:339-401.
13. Kantor GR, Ratz JL. Liver toxicity from potassium para-aminobenzoate. J Am Acad Dermatol 1985;13:671-2.
14. Worobec S, LaChine A. Dangers of orally administrered para-aminobenzoic acid. JAMA 1984;251:2348.

Choline References:
1. Benjamin J, Levine J. Fux M, et al. Double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover trial of inositol treatment for panic disorder. Am J Psychiatry 1995;152:1084-86.

1. Osborne CG, McTyre RB, Dudek J, et al. Evidence for the relationship of calcium to blood pressure Nutr Rev 1996;54:365-81.
2. Barilla DE, Notz C, Kennedy D, Pak CYC. Renal oxalate excretion following oral oxalate loads in patients with ileal disease and with renal and absorptive hypercalciurias: effect of calcium and magnesium. Am J Med 1978;64:579-85.
3. Curhan GC, Willett WC, Rimm EB, Stampfer MJ. A prospective study of dietary calcuim and other nutrients and the risk of symptomatic kidney stones. N Engl J Med 1993;328:833-83.
4. Bell L, Hastenson CE, Halstenson CJ, et al. Cholesterol-lowering effects of calcium carbonate in patients with mild to moderate hypercholesterolemia. Arch Intern Med 1992;152:2441-44.
5. Sheikh MS, Santa Ana CA, Nicar MJ, et al. Gastrointestinal absorption of calcium from milk and calcium salts. N Engle J Med 1987;317:532-36.
6. Levenson DI, Bockman RS. A review of calcium preparations. Nutr Rev 1994;52:221-32 [review].
7. Nicar MJ, Pak CYC. Calcium bioavailabitliy from calcium carbonate and calcium citrate. J Clin Endocrinol Metabol 1985;61:391-93.
8. Harvey JA, Kenny P, Piondexter J, Pak CYC. Superior calcium absorption from calcium citrate that calcium carbonate using external forearm counting. J Am Coll Nutr 1990;9:583-87.
9. Sheikh MS, Santa Ana CA, Nicar MJ, et al. Gastrointestinal absorption of calcium from milk and calcium salts. N Engl J Med 1987;317:532-36.
10. Epstein O, Kato Y, Dick R, Sherlock S. Vitamin D, hydroxyapatite, and calcium gluconate in treatment of cortical bone thinning in postmenopausal women with primary billiary cirrhosis. Am J Clin Nutr 1982;36:426-30.
11. Heaney RP, Recker RR, Weaver CM. Absoubability of calcium sources: the limited role of solubilit Calcif Tissue Int
12. Deroisy R, Zartarian M, Meurmans L, et al. Acute changes in serum calcium and parathyroid hormone circulating levels induced by the oral intake of five currently available calcium salts in healthy male volunteers. Clin Rheumatol 1997;16:249-53.
13. Levenson DI, Bockman RS. A review of calcium preparatins. Nutr Rev 1994;52:221-32 [review].
14. Burros M. Testing calcium supplements for lead. New York Times June 4, 1997, B7.
15. Bourhoin BP, Evans DR, Cornett JR, et al. Lead content in 70 brands of dietary calcium supplements. Am J Publ Health 1993;83:1155-60.
16. Civitelli R, Villareal DT, Agnusdei D, et al. Dietary L-lysine and calcium metabolism in humans. Nutrition 1992;8:400-5.
17. Flodin NW. The metabolic roles; pharmacology, and toxicology of lysine. J Am Coll Nutr 1997;16:7-21 [review].

Magnesium References:
1. Gaspar AZ, Gasser P, Flammer J. The influence of magnesium on visual field and peripheral vasospasm in glaucoma. Ophthalmologica 1995;209:11-13.
2. Kawano Y, Matsuoka H, Takishita S, Omae T. Effects of magnesium supplementation in hypertens patients. Hypertension 1998;32:260-65.
3. Starobrat-Hermelin B, Kozielec T. The effects of magnesium physiological supplementation on hyperactivity in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD): Positive response to magnesium oral loading test. Magnesium Res 1997;10:149-56.
4. Cox IM, Campbell MJ, Dowson D. Red boood cell magnesium and chronic fatigue syndrome. Lanc 1991;337:757-60.
5. Howard JM, Davies S, Hunnisett A. Magnesium and chronic fatigue syndrome. Lancet 1992;340:426.
6. Gantz NM. Magnesium and chronic fatigue. Lancet 1991;338:66 [letter].
7. Hinds G, Bell NP, McMaster D, McCluskey DR. Normal red cell magnesium concentrations and magnesium loading tests in patients with chronic fatigue syndrome. Ann Clin Biochem
1994;31(Pt 5):459-61.
8. Weisinger JR, Bellorin-font, E. Magnesium and phosphorus. Lancet 1998;352:391-96 [review].

Zinc References:
1. Mossad SB, Macknin ML, Medendorp SV, et al. Zinc gluconate lozenges for treating the common cold. Ann Int Med 1996;125:81-88.
2. Anonymous. Zinc lozenges reduce the duration of common cold symptoms. Nutr Rev 1997;55:82-88 [review].
3. Garland ML, Hagmeyer KO. The role of zinc lozenges in treatment of the common cold. Ann Pharmacother 1998;32:63-69 [review].
4. Macknin ML, Piedmonte M, Calendine C, et al. Zinc gluconate lozenges for treating the common cold in children. A randomized controlled trial. JAMA 1998;279:192-67.
5. Eby G. Where's the bias? Ann Intern Med 1998;128:75 [letter].
6. Petrus EJ, Lawson KA, Bucci LR, Blum K. Randomized, double-masked, placebo-controlled clinical study of the effectiveness of zinc acetate lozenges on common cold symptons in allergy-tested subjects. Curr Ther Res 1998;59:595-607.
7. Weismann K, Jakobsen JP, Weismann JE, et al. Zinc gluconate lozenges for common cold. A double-blind clinical trial. Dan Med Bull 1990;37:279-81.
8. Cherry FF, Sandstead HH, Rojas P, et al. Adolescent pregnancy: associations among body weight, zinc nutriture, and pregnancy outcome. Am J Clin Nutr 1989;50:945-54.
9. Goldenberg RL, Tamura T, Neggers Y, et al. The effect of zinc supplementation on pregnancy outcome. JAMA 1995;274:463-68.
10. Prasad A. Discovery of human zinc deficiency and studies in an experimental human model. Amer clin Nutr 1991;53:406-13 [review].
11. Chandra RK. Excessive intake of zinc impairs immune responses. JAMA 1984;252(11):1443.
12. Bush Al, Pettingell WH, Multhaup G, et al. Rapid induction of Alzheimer A8 amyloid formation by zinc. Science 1994;265:1464-65.
13. Potocnik FCV, van Rensburg SJ, Park C, et al. Zinc and platelet membrane microviscosity in Alzheimer's disease. S Afr Med J 1997;87:1116-19.
14. Prasad AS. Zinc in human health: an update. J Trace Elements Exper Med 1998;11:63-87.
15. Broun ER, Greist A, Tricot G, Hoffman R. Excessive zinc ingestion-a reversible cause of sideroblastic anemia and bone marrow depression. JAMA 1990;264:1441-43.
16. Resiser S, et al. Effect of copper intake on blood colesterol and its lipoprotein distribution in men. Nutr Rep Internat 1987;36(3):641-49.
17. Sandstead HH. Requirements and toxicity of essential trace elements, illustrated by zinc and copper. Am Jclin Nutr 1995;61(suppl):621S-24S [review].
18. Fischer PWF, Girous A, Labbe MR. Effect of zinc supplementation on copper status in adult man. Am J Clin Nutr 1984;40(4):743-46.
19. Dawson EB, Albers J, McGanity WJ. Serum zinc change due to iron supplementation in teenage pregnancy. Am J Clin Nutr 1990;50:848-52.
20. Crofton RW, Gvozdanovic D, Gvozanovic S, et al. Inorganic zinc and the intestinal absorption of ferrous iron. Am J Clin Nutr 1989;50:141-44.
21. Argiratos V, Samman S. The effect of calcium carbonate and calcium citrate on the absorption of zinc in healthy female subjects. Eur J Clin Nutr 1994;48:198-204.
22. Spence H, Norris C, Williams D. Inhibitory effects of zinc on magnesium balance and magnesium absorption in man. J Am Coll Nutr 1994;13:479-84.
23. Brumas V, Hacht B, Filella M, Berthon G. Can N-acetyl-L-cysteine affect zinc metabolisms when used as a paracetamol antidote? Agents Actions 1992;36:278-88.

Copper References:
1. Sandstead HH. Requirements and toxicity of essential trace elements, illustrated by zinc and copper Am J Clin Nutr 1995;61(suppl):62S-64S.
2. Broun ER. Greist A, Tricot G, Hoffman R. Excessive zinc ingestion. A reversible cause of siderobla anemia and bone marrow depression. JAMA 1990;264:1441-43.
3. Jacob RA, Skala JH, Omaye ST, Turnlund JR. Effect of varying ascorbic acid intakes on copper absorption and ceruloplasmin levels of young men. J Nutr 1987;117:2109-15.

Chromium References:
1. Saner G, Yüzbasiyan V, Neyzi O, et al. Alterations of chromium metabolism and effect of chromium supplementation in Turner's syndrome patients. Am J Clin Nutr 1983;38:574-78.
2. Riales R, Albrink MJ. Effect of chromium chloride supplementation on glucose tolerance and serum lipids including high-density lipoprotein of adult men. Am J Clin Nutr 1981;34:2670-78.
3. Wang MM, Fox EZ, Stoecker BJ, et al. Serum cholesterol of adults supplemented with brewer's yeast or chromium cholride. Nutr Res 1989;9:989-98.
4. Page TG, Ward TL, and Southern LL. Effect of chromium picolinate on growth and carcass characteristics of growing-finishing pigs. J Animal Sci 1991;69:356.
5. Lefavi R, Anderson R, Keith R, et al. Efficacy of chromium supplementation in athletes: Emphasis on anabolism. Int J Sport Nutr 1992;2:111-22.
6. McCarty MF. The case for supplemental chromium and a survey of clinical studies with chromium picolinate. J Appl Nutr 1991;43:59-66.
7. Hallmark MA, Reynolds TH, DeSouza CA, et al. Effects of chromium and resistive training on muscle strength and body composition. Med Sci Spt Ex 1996;28:139-44.
8. Kaats GR, Blum K, Fisher JA, Adelman JA. Effects of chromium picolinate supplementation on body composition: a randomized, double-masked, placebo-controlled study. Curr Ther Res 1996;57:747-51.
9. Kaats GR, Blum K, Pullin D, Keither SC, Wood R. A randomized, double-masked, placebo-control study of the effects of chromium picolinate supplementation on body composition: a replication and extension of a previous study. Curr Ther Res 1998;59:379-88.
10. Sterns DM, Belbruno JJ, Wetterhahn KE. A prediction of chromium (III) accumulation in humans from chromium dietary supplements. FASEB J 1995;9:1650-57.
11. Sterns DM, Wise JP, Patierno SR, Wetterhahn KE. Chromium (III) picolinate produces chromosl damage in Chinese hamster ovary cells. FASEB J 1995;9:1643-49.
12. Garland M, Morris JS, Colditz GA, et al. Toenail trace element levels and breat cancer. AmJ Epidemiol 1996;144:653-60.
13. Cerulli J, Grabe DW, Guathier I, et al. Chromium picolinate toxicity. Ann Pharmacother 1998;32:428-31.
14. Wasser WG, Feldman NS. Chromic renal failure after ingestion of over-the-counter chromium picolinate. Ann Intern Med 1997;126:410 [letter].
15. Offenbacher EG. Promotion of chromium absorption by ascorbic acid. Trace Elements Electrolyte 1994;11:178-81.

Molybdenum References:
1. Johnson JL et al. Molybdenum cofactor deficiency in a patient previously characterized as deficient sulfite oxidase. Biochem Med Metabol Biol 1988;40:86-93.

Selenium References:
1. Clark LC, Combs FG, Turnbull BW, et al. Effects of selenium supplementation for cancer prevention in patients with carcinoma of the skin. JAMA 1996;276:1957-63.
2. Yoshizawa K, Willett WC, Morris SJ, et al. Study of prediagnostic selenium levels in toenails and the risk of advanced prostate cancer. J Natl Cancer Inst 1998;20:15-20.
3. Yu S-Y, Li W-G, Zhu Y-J, et al. Chemoprevention trial of human hepatitis with selenium supplementation in China. Biol Trace Element Res 1989;20:15-20.
4. Peretz A, Neve J, Desmedt J, et al. Lymphocyte response is enhanced by supplementation of elderly subjects with selenium-enriched yeast. Am J Clin Nutri 1991;53:1323-28
5. Scott R, Macpherson A, Yates RWS, et al The effects of oral selenium supplementation on human sperm motility. Br J Urol 1998;82:76-80.
6. Dworkin BM. Selenium deficiency in HIV infection and the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). Chem Biol Iteract 1994;91:181-86.
7. Moore JA, Noiva R, Wells IC. Selenium concentractions in plasma of patients with arteriographically defined coronary atherosclerosis. Clin Chem 1984;30:1171-73.
8. Contempre B, Dumont JE, Ngo B, et al. Effects of selenium supplementation in hypothyroid subjects of an iodine and selenium deficient area: The possible danger of indiscriminate supplementation of iodine deficient subjects with selenium. J Clin Endocrinol Metabol 1991;73:213-15.

Manganese References:
1. Raloff J. Reasons for boning up on manganese. Science Sep 1986, 199 [review].
2. Krieger D, Kreiger S, Jansen O, et al. Manganese and chronic hepatic encephalopathy. Lancet 1995;346:270-74.
3. Freeland-Graves JH. Manganese: an essential nutrient for humans. Nutr Today 1989;23:13-19 [review].

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